Vulnerability assessment is no longer an optional cybersecurity practice; it’s a must. But it’s not always an easy or efficient process.
The vulnerability assessment process involves scanning and analyzing hardware and software for vulnerabilities that malware could exploit. It also includes identifying and prioritizing those vulnerabilities and developing a remediation action plan.
Vulnerability assessment is an essential component of a comprehensive cybersecurity management program. It enables organizations to understand better their IT infrastructure, security flaws, and overall risk, thus reducing the likelihood of cybercriminals gaining unauthorized access to critical assets.
An effective vulnerability assessment process involves identifying, analyzing, and assigning vulnerabilities to one of two categories: remediation or mitigation. Remediation is preferred as it eliminates the risk, while comfort is often performed to buy time until a suitable patch or solution can be applied.
Several factors, including missing software security patches, misconfigured systems, unprotected databases, and weak identity and access controls, may cause vulnerabilities. When these issues are not addressed, attackers can steal data and disrupt business operations, resulting in financial, legal, and public relations challenges for an organization.
Many companies seek robust solutions, such as Fortinet’s expertise in vulnerability assessment, to safeguard their digital infrastructure.
An automated tool can help organizations discover and identify vulnerabilities quickly and accurately. The device uses an Extensible Markup Language specification to represent configuration information of systems for testing, analyzes the machine state to detect existing vulnerabilities, and reports the results.
Educating IT staff and non-technical stakeholders on how to interpret the results of a vulnerability assessment helps ensure that the process is used effectively. In addition, it can reduce the number of false positives that may result from using automation. Some offer a range of training programs, such as its Certified Ethical Hacker (C|EH) course, designed to teach professionals how to perform a practical vulnerability assessment.
Using the results of vulnerability scans, an organization can evaluate which vulnerabilities pose a risk to the business and create a remediation plan. This includes establishing priorities for fixing them. Generally, fixing every vulnerability found in an assessment is not feasible. Therefore, the assessment team must decide which are most important to prioritize based on their potential impact and likelihood of exploitability. This should be done in conjunction with analyzing the complexity and time needed to address them – which may include patching, making configuration changes, or isolating vulnerable systems.
A common approach is to use a vulnerability prioritization framework that gives each vulnerability a score based on its technical severity, which can lead to problems. A key issue is that these scores don’t consider the unique environment in which a given vulnerability might be used, such as whether attackers have already leveraged it in the wild.
Another problem is that the resulting score can lead to false positives. This occurs when a vulnerability is assigned a high score, and remediation efforts are focused on it when the fact is that it’s not exploited in the wild or has a low risk to the business. This can waste valuable resources. A multi-stage vulnerability management program and automation help to reduce this problem by eliminating false positives and focusing teams on the most severe issues.
Developing a Remedial Action Plan
When the vulnerability assessment results are analyzed, IT teams must determine what to do about each uncovered threat. This may involve patching or mitigating the vulnerability to reduce the risk of exploitation, or it might include analyzing the impact and likelihood of an attack and whether fixing the issue would cause downtime or otherwise disrupt business operations.
The process of identifying, classifying, and reporting vulnerabilities must be ongoing. This helps to ensure that IT and security teams have the information they need to prepare for an incident response, strengthen security controls, and develop robust strategies.
A vulnerability assessment can identify gaps in security procedures that attackers can exploit in a cyberattack, such as SQL injection attacks or privilege escalation vulnerabilities (design flaws, misconfiguration, or other oversights that allow malware access to resources restricted to higher-level users). Vulnerability assessments can also detect network and systems flaws that can be used to launch denial of service (DoS) attacks, rogue databases, and insecure dev/test environments that attackers can use to steal sensitive data.
The organization must define desirable outcomes to help the vulnerability assessment process become effective. These objectives should be clear and concise so that IT and security teams can focus on achieving them. For example, suppose a vulnerability assessment only concentrates on detecting many potential risks. In that case, it’s unlikely that the IT team will want to invest time in remediating them all.
The process of identifying and fixing vulnerabilities is an ongoing one. As new threats emerge, you must assess your organization and make changes accordingly.
You can use manual or automated scanning tools to scan each network asset and identify vulnerabilities during this step. You can also perform authenticated vulnerability scanning, which uses the credentials of a trusted user to gain an insider’s view of the system. This helps you identify many vulnerabilities that would otherwise go undetected, such as weak passwords or outdated software.
In this step, you’ll analyze the list of vulnerabilities and their challenging risk levels to determine what action should be taken. This may involve determining whether the vulnerabilities are threats or false positives and looking for root causes. You’ll also choose a priority for each exposure, as fixing every flaw at once may not be feasible.
Vulnerability assessments are a critical line of defense against data breaches and other cyberattacks that can damage your business’ reputation, harm customer trust, and lead to financial losses. With research showing that the world loses $8 trillion to cybercrime yearly, it’s crucial to keep up with vulnerability assessment and remediation efforts.
With the right tools and team, conducting vulnerability assessments doesn’t have to be a time-consuming project. Automated vulnerability assessment solutions can help streamline the entire process, enabling your IT teams to focus on more strategic initiatives.